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Home > Blog > January 2017 > Making Huck Sing: Five Theater Veterans on the Art of Adaptation
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Making Huck Sing: Five Theater Veterans on the Art of Adaptation

January 25, 2017 by New York City Center


Michael John LaChiusa, Daryl Waters, Rachel Chavkin, Dave Malloy, and Michael Friedman share a laugh at Encores! Unscripted. (Sara Robillard)

Mark Twain, Tolstoy, and Tupac. All are untouchable; the idea of adapting their work into Broadway musicals would seem to be (at best) hubristic and (at worst) irredeemably loony. Luckily, that didn’t stop Big River composer Roger Miller—or Dave Malloy and Rachel Chavkin, whose giddy riff on War and Peace is Broadway’s latest smash. It also didn’t stop Michael John LaChiusa, who has whipped everything from Giant to Rashomon into the musical theater form, or Daryl Waters, who helped shape the raps of Tupac Shakur into Holler If Ya Hear Me.

In December, Malloy, Chavkin, LaChiusa, and Waters came to Encores! Unscripted for a conversation about the landmine-strewn art of translating great works onto the stage. Here are highlights from that evening, which was hosted by Encores! Off-Center Artistic Director Michael Friedman.

MICHAEL FRIEDMAN: What draws you to material? What attracts you to a source?

MICHAEL JOHN LACHIUSA: I think it’s character. The characters have to sing, and have to have something to sing about. That’s what makes our musicals musicals: the characters are opening up their souls about something that they couldn’t say out loud. That’s what I look for in any adaptation. In the case of [Edna Ferber’s novel] Giant, the Texas history and the oil and the racism was all background. What attracted me to the piece was how two opposites came together in a marriage that went on for 25 years. And both those characters have something to sing about.

RACHEL CHAVKIN: For me, it’s the same way that a literary critic would write an essay about something that they want to cast. There’s just an obsession of interpretation: a feeling that I need others to see what I see in [the source material], and maybe an anxiety that something could be missed. Like, Did you get this? Did you get why this gesture was so beautiful? [Dave and I are working on an adaptation of Shakespeare’s Henriad,] and in the case of Prince Hal, I wanted to share why I have had a crush on this boy since I was in college, and why I have also wanted to throttle him. That’s why I began writing text alongside the Shakespeare—because Shakespeare wasn’t angry enough at Hal for me.

LACHIUSA: Also, we do enjoy working with dead sources.

DAVE MALLOY: Oh, yeah. (laughs) Brilliant and dead.

FRIEDMAN: I guess that would be the real answer to the question What drew you to this material? “My prime collaborator cannot collaborate and will do whatever I say.”


Dave Malloy performs “Sonya Alone” from Natasha, Pierre & The Great Comet of 1812. (Sara Robillard)

MALLOY: It’s so true. Rachel and I are also working on Moby Dick, which might be over several nights.

LACHIUSA: Do it on a ship,  too, maybe.

MALLOY: Oh, yeah. We’ve been talking about the idea of a durational thing; the audience would become the ship. They’d eat meals together and drink grog together, all of those things.

FRIEDMAN: It’s good to know you guys remain unambitious. But with almost all of these shows, [we’re adapting material] that made people say, “You can’t possibly do that.” We like to prove people wrong. Daryl, I’m really interested in your work on Holler If Ya Hear Me, which was sonically one of the most astonishing experiences I’ve ever had in a theater. It was like watching an album transformed into a theatrical space.

DARYL WATERS: My biggest challenge was finding ways to theatricalize [Tupac Shakur’s] music. The loops are fine, the groove is fine, but at a certain point there are things you can do to help the drama—like key changes. I also added melodies to some of his lyrics, so it became a lot more “musical” to people.

FRIEDMAN: How did the permissions work? Were you given free reign [by Tupac’s estate]?

WATERS: I was given free reign until I wasn’t.

FRIEDMAN: (laughs) That’s the title of a book. I Was Given Free Reign Until I Wasn’t: A Life in the Theater.

Watch the entire conversation here:


The next Encores! Unscripted event, When Pop Writers Go Broadway, is on January 30.